By R. Miller
An extreme charged particle beam might be characterised as an geared up charged particle move for which the consequences of beam self-fields are of significant significance in describing the evolution of the move. learn applying such beams is now a swiftly transforming into box with very important purposes starting from the improvement of excessive strength resources of coherent radiation to inertial confinement fusion. significant courses have now been validated at numerous laboratories within the usa and nice Britain, in addition to within the USSR, Japan, and several other japanese and Western eu international locations. furthermore, comparable study actions are being pursued on the graduate point at numerous universities within the US and in another country. while the writer first entered this box in 1973 there has been no unmarried reference textual content that supplied a large survey of the $64000 subject matters, but contained adequate element to be of curiosity to the energetic researcher. That scenario has endured, and this publication is an try to fill the void. As such, the textual content is aimed toward the graduate pupil, or starting researcher; despite the fact that, it includes abundant info to be a handy reference resource for the complicated worker.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams
Intense relativistic electron beams injected into neutral gas as a function of background pressure. 6 Torr); (V= 2 MY, 1= 20 kA). Chap. 1 • Introduction 26 perpendicular temperature. Finally, at still higher pressures, the frequency of collisions between plasma electrons and neutrals increases, and the conductivity decreases (1m < I). Since the beam space charge is still neutralized (Ie = I) pinched beam propagation is again possible. 4. The Macroscopic Fluid Description While the envelope equation developed in the preceding section provides a useful qualitative guide to the general behavior of a charged particle beam, a more detailed understanding of intense beam physics requires a more sophisticated theoretical treatment.
Explosive Electron Emission On almost any surface there exist microscopic surface protrusions (whiskers) which are typically on the order of 10- 4 cm in height with a base radius of less than 10- 5 cm and tip radius usually much smaller than the base radius. 9, 10 Reported estimates of whisker concentrations have ranged from approximately I to 10 4 whiskers/cni. ll , 12 When high voltage is applied to the diode, the electric field at the whisker tips on the cold cathode 38 Chap. 4. Microscopic view of the local electric field enhancement at the tip of a whiskerlike protrusion on the cathode surface.
3. Effective potential energy V( z) of an electron near a metallic surface, as given by Eq. 5), assuming an electric field strength of E = 10 8 V/cm. 3) where e is the electron energy, EF is the energy of the Fermi level, k is the Boltzmann constant, Ii = h j2'fT where h is Planck's constant, and T is the absolute temperature. 4) An approximate form for the effective one-dimensional potential is (see Fig. 5) 36 Chap. 85XlO- 12 flm is the permittivity of free space (MKS units). The three contributions to the effective potential are (i) some constant value (- Wo) within the metal which is lower than the Fermi level, (ii) a contribution (- eEz) arising from an applied electric field, and (iii) a contribution - e 2/4u p 7T due to the image charge induced on the surface of the metal by an electron outside the metal.