By Brian McNair
An advent to Political communique explores the connection among politics, the media and democracy within the united kingdom, the us and different modern societies. Brian McNair examines how politicians, alternate unions, strain teams, non-governmental businesses and terrorist organisations utilize the media. Separate chapters examine political media and their results, the paintings of political ads, advertising and marketing and public family and the conversation practices of organisations in any respect degrees, from grassroots campaigning via to governments and foreign bodies.Recent advancements coated within the new version include:* the re-election of latest Labour in 2001* the adjustments in executive details and verbal exchange coverage brought via the Blair management due to the fact 1997* the 2000 election of George W. Bush within the usa* the NATO interventions in Kosovo and the previous Yugoslavia* the consequences for foreign political communique of September eleven* the emergence of Al-Quaida and the conflict on terror.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Political Communication, 3rd Edition (Communication and Society)
While the best-known and most frequently used polling organisations, 32 THE EFFECTS OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION such as Gallup, MORI and NOP take considerable time and money to achieve the maximum degree of accuracy possible, many opinion polls, particularly those conducted independently by print and broadcast media, do not. 3 Public opinion polls are not only a measure (however imperfect) of political attitudes and intentions at a given point in time. Many observers agree that they can become a causal factor in voting behaviour.
In political communication, as in Hollywood cinema or pornography, the audience’s relationship to the message is ambiguous and extremely difﬁcult to investigate empirically. Attempts have been made to do so none the less, and Chapter 3 will examine the evidence for and against the efﬁcacy of political communication (as measured against the intentions of the communicators), including such issues as the importance of a politician’s visual image in shaping voters’ perceptions; the impact of ‘biased’ media coverage on election outcomes; and the relationship between ‘public opinion’ and attempts (by both politicians and media organisations) to set agendas.
The fact of parties’ expenditure on advertising might be thought to point to evidence that it works 36 THE EFFECTS OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION in shaping behaviour. Such evidence is, however, conspicuously lacking. Research cited by Diamond and Bates supports the ‘uses and gratiﬁcations’ thesis that the effects of political advertising (in which category we include British party political broadcasts) are heavily conditioned by the existing political attitudes of the audience. They note that ‘some supporters of a particular candidate tend to project their views on to the candidate’s advertising – they will hear what they want to hear, almost regardless of what the favoured candidate says.