By Erode G. Mahadevan
The ebook describes the technology and expertise of formula and production of non-nitroglycerine explosives with ammonium nitrate because the major factor. in keeping with the author's event of greater than thirty years, it offers an unheard of therapy of 1 of the commercially most crucial periods of explosives and consequently stimulates extra study and improvement efforts within the box of explosives for civil applications.Content:
Chapter 1 class of Explosives (pages 1–3):
Chapter 2 Explosive technology (pages 5–14):
Chapter three Ammonium Nitrate Explosives (pages 15–30):
Chapter four Ammonium Nitrate and AN/FO (pages 31–58):
Chapter five Slurries and Water Gels (pages 59–112):
Chapter 6 Emulsion Explosives (pages 113–155):
Chapter 7 study and improvement (pages 157–162):
Chapter eight practical safeguard in the course of Manufacture of AN Explosives (pages 163–177):
Chapter nine Economics of AN?Based Explosives (pages 179–193):
Chapter 10 present prestige and Concluding feedback (pages 195–197):
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Extra resources for Ammonium Nitrate Explosives for Civil Applications: Slurries, Emulsions and Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oils
That AN itself possesses explosive character became apparent in a tragic way through disasters involving AN alone in explosions of severe magnitude. The most famous and well-known ones are the accidents in Upper Silesia (1921), Oppau, Germany (1921), Brest, France (1947), Texas City, USA (1947), Toulose, France (2001). A thorough investigation by scientists of its decomposition chemistry, thermochemistry, crystalline behavior, physical properties, heat of formation, and oxygen content produced enormous and satisfying data to enable solutions to be found for problems cropping up in its industrial applications such as physical strength, porosity, caking, release of energy, and sensitivity to initiation.
Modes of thermal decomposition suggested for pure AN are presented in Ref. . 2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Ammonium Nitrate Under conﬁnement detonation occurs as 4NH4 NO3 = 2NO2 + 8H2 O + 3N2 + 27 kcal/mol With just enough fuel added to consume all the available oxygen from AN, the reaction is 3NH4 NO3 + CH2 = 3N2 + 7H2 O + CO2 + 82 kcal/mol There is almost threefold increase in the heat energy released as compared to that where AN rapidly decomposes without the presence of fuel. 3 Phase Transition in AN and its Importance in Explosives AN crystals exist in different forms at different temperatures.
2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2013 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. 1 Basic Data Literature gives enormous data on the above, but one of the most comprehensive single source is the paper authored by Oommen and Jain . 6 ◦ C. 1). 2 Decomposition Chemistry of AN While pure AN is stable at room temperature, on heating in the open melts at 169 ◦ C, boils at 210 ◦ C, decomposes around 230 ◦ C, and deﬂagrates at above 325 ◦ C. When conﬁned and heated, AN can explode beyond 260 ◦ C depending on the rate of heating.