By L. Robert, T. Fulop, T. Fulop
Getting older encouraged plenty of theories attempting to rationalize the getting older procedure universal to all dwelling beings. during this book an important environmental and intrinsic mechanisms considering the getting older strategy and in its pathological outcomes are reviewed. in addition theoretical and experimental facts of an important theoretical components in response to Darwinian evolution, mobile getting older, position of telephone membranes, unfastened radicals and oxidative methods, receptor-mediated reactions, the extracellular matrix and immune services in addition to crucial environmental and intrinsic mechanisms keen on the getting older procedure and in its pathological effects are mentioned. those shows of theories and comparable experimental evidence supply a world evaluate of latest ideas of the biology of the getting older approach and are of crucial analyzing not just for experts during this box but additionally for practitioners of clinical, scientific, social and experimental sciences.
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Additional resources for Aging: Facts and Theories
The exact concentration that reaches the cultured cells is uncertain since oxygen is only sparingly soluble in culture medium. 5 or 3% oxygen concentration delayed the appearance of replicative senescence compared to cells grown in 20% and resulted in reduced expression levels of the cell cycle modulators p21 and p16 . Late passage ﬁbroblasts have extended replicative capacity under 3% as compared to 20% oxygen, but have signiﬁcantly shorter telomere lengths . These results are consistent with the idea that critically short telomere length may not be the sole trigger of cell senescence.
The maturation of pro-osteoblasts into osteoblasts diminishes, and the proliferation of osteoblasts declines, so that their activity is progressively offset by the activity of osteoclasts. Other cells in bones contribute to this process. With age, there is a decline in the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) secreted by stromal cells, which blocks the osteoclast-stimulatory effect of OPG ligand . The remodeling in the synthesis of long-distance messengers such as hormones also plays a role in the bone structural changes.
The age-related decline of immune functions proposed by the immune theory has been replaced by a completely different view . Immune senescence 38 Macieira-Coelho Robert L, Fulop T (eds): Aging: Facts and Theories. Interdiscipl Top Gerontol. 1159/000358898 appears as a shift in lymphocyte populations leading to enhanced as well as diminished functions determined by developmental changes. In contrast to the general agerelated decline in T and B cell activity, the NK cell system is highly active in the age group above 80 years .