By D. Virgil Alfaro III MD, Peter E. Liggett MD, William F. Mieler MD, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado MD, Rama D. Jager MD MBA FACS, Yasuo Tano MD
A well known staff of retina surgeons offers promising new advancements in age-related macular degeneration, with emphasis at the most vital advances long ago 5 years. content material addresses all elements of administration, together with anatomy, body structure, and pathophysiology; imaging of the macula in age-related macular degeneration; prevention measures and therapy; therapy; and destiny instructions. Abundantly illustrated and beautifully prepared, this publication serves as an exceptional reference and textbook.
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Extra info for Age-related macular degeneration : a comprehensive textbook
Initially primates were the most extensively studied since their physiology and anatomy most closely resembles that of the human. Subsequently, investigators sought out other subjects that are smaller, easier to handle, and more affordable. Hence, the animal disease model has been extended from the primate to the rabbit, cat, pig, rat, mouse, chicken chorioallantoic membrane, and, most recently, endothelial cells in tissue culture. An ideal or perfect animal model does not exist for AMD given its clinical complexity and lack of knowledge of its cause, genetic link, and pathomechanism.
One of the newest models for AMD is an in vitro tissueculture model. Renno et al. have demonstrated the use of cultured bovine retinal capillary endothelial and retinal pigment epithelial cells to study the effects of angiostatin and PDT (106). Bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells were used as a representative capillary endothelial line of the posterior segment. Tissue culture is thought to represent proliferating tissue/endothelium and may provide a useful disease model. SUMMARY Several animal models have been reviewed for both exudative and dry AMD.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992;33: 2,0792,090. 58. Veikkola T, Alitalo K. VEGFs, receptors and angiogenesis. Semin Cancer Biol. 1999;9:211-220. 59. Shima DT, Gougos A, Miller JW, et al. Cloning and mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in ischemic retinas of Macaca fascicularis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998;39:180-188. 60. Kvanta A, Algvere PV, Berglin L, et al. Subfoveal fibrovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration express vascular endothelial growth factor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.