By International Monetary Fund, Gerald K. Helleiner
Edited by means of G.K. Helleiner, this quantity includes the court cases of a symposium together subsidized via the organization of African imperative Banks and the IMF that was once held in Nairobi, Kenya, in might 1985.
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Additional info for Africa and the International Monetary Fund : papers presented at a symposium held in Nairobi, Kenya, May 13-15, 1985
Viewed nationally, it is export promotion. So long as we can buy imports from each other in return for exports to each other (in unusual cases the purchaser can readily pay in convertible currency despite highly unbalanced trade), exports to our neighbors are every bit as valuable as those to our traditional northern markets, and, for manufactures, often pose fewer taste, marketing, and transport-cost barriers. On the domestic side, efficient import substitution in manufactures as well as food and energy is critical.
Interest rates are expected to be somewhat lower in real terms than in early 1985. And non-oil commodity prices are expected to rise broadly in line with prices of manufactured goods exported by industrial countries. The policies pursued by industrial countries will be especially important because their economic performance will determine the external environment within which developing countries' efforts to resume sustainable growth will take place. The industrial countries will be seeking to consolidate the recovery and to ensure that its benefits are more broadly shared.
Many of our industries emerged behind high protective barriers and cannot be made competitive with an exchange rate adjustment, however politically or even economically advisable. Capital markets are fragmented and hardly touch some sectors, while credit instruments are poorly developed, leaving central bankers impotent to affect credit conditions in important parts of our economies. There are solutions to these structural deficiencies, and indeed the typical stabilization package includes some of the solutions.