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And the worldwide activities of the Portuguese were coming to be centred more on the sugar of Brazil and the slaves of Africa than on the eastern periphery of empire. In Maluku the Portuguese left some other signs of their cultural influence. The romantic keroncong ballads sung to the guitar are of hybrid Portuguese origin. A considerable number of Indonesian words are from Portuguese, such as pesta (party), sabun (soap), sepatu (shoe), bendera (flag), meja (table), Minggu (Sunday), and so on. This reflects the role which the Portuguese language played, alongside Malay, as a lingua franca throughout the archipelago into the early nineteenth century.

15 79. With the fall of Pajajaran the last significant Hindu-Buddhist state disappeared in Java, although there was still a smaller pre-Islamic state in the Eastern Salient (Oosthoek) and small nonIslamised communities remained in several areas. Upon the conquest of Pajajaran, the Sundanese elite is said to have embraced Islam. In the latter half of the sixteenth century Demak's claims to overlordship in Java disintegrated. The fourth ruler of Demak, traditionally called Sultan Prawata (r. c. ), appears not to have attempted campaigns like those of his predecessor Trenggana.

On 30 May he stormed the town, reduced it to ashes, and drove the Banten forces out. The VOC trading post of Batavia, standing amidst the ashes of J ayakerta, was now to be the headquarters for the VOC's vast trading empire. The conquest of Batavia was the most significant step taken by the Dutch since their first ship set sail for the East. The VOC could now develop a military and administrative centre in a relatively safe site for the warehousing and exchange of goods, located in the western archipelago with access to the trade routes to East Indonesia, the Far East and the West.

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